Tuesday, 25 March 2014

History About Pakistan....

Posted by Lala Hacker  |  at  07:51:00


HISTORY:Pakistan traces its history back to 2,500 years B.C., when a highly developed civilization in the Indus Valley, excavations at Harappa, Moenjodaro, Kot Diji and Mehr Garh have brought to light, the evidence of an advanced civilization existing even in more ancient times.
Around 1,500 B.C., the Aryans overwhelmed this region, and influenced the Hindu civilization, whose center moved to Ganges Valley, further east. Later, the Persians occupied the northern region in the 5th century B.C. up to the 2nd century A.D. The Greeks came in 327 B.C., under Alexander of Macedonia, and passed away like a meteor. In 712 AD, the Arabs, led by Muhammad Bin Qasim, Landed somewhere near modern Karachi and ruled the lower half of Pakistan for two hundred years. During this time, Islam took roots in the soil and influenced the life, culture and traditions of the people.
In the 10th century AD, began the systematic conquest of South Asia by the Muslims from Central Asia, who ruled here up to the 18th century,. Then the British became the masters of the land and ruled for nearly 200 years and for only 100 years over what is Pakistan now. The Muslim revival began towards the end of the last century when Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, a renowned Muslim leader and educationist, launched a movement for intellectual renaissance of the Muslims of South Asia. In 1930, the well known poet - philosopher, Allama muhammad Iqbal, conceived the idea of a separate state for the Muslims of the South Asia. In 1940, a resolution was adopted by the all-India Muslim League, demanding a separate dependent homeland for the Muslims of South Asia. After seven years of un-tiring struggle under the brilliant leadership of Quaid-e-Azam (The great leader) Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Pakistan emerged on the world map as a sovereign state, on 14th August, 1947.
GOVERNMENT:
Pakistan is an Islamic republic with its capital at Islamabad. It has four provinces: Balochistan, North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Punjab and Sindh. Their respective capitals are Quetta, Peshawar, Lahore and Karachi. In addition to provinces, are the Federal Administered Northern Areas (F.A.N.A) and Federal Administered Tribal Areas (F.A.T.A). Pakistan has a federal structure. Parliament consists of National Assembly and the Senate. Members of the National Assembly are directly elected on the adult franchise base and there term of office is five years. The National Assembly determine the major policy issue and passes annual budget and legislation. It elects the Prime Minister from among its members. The Prime Minister forms his / her cabinet from among members of the Assembly and Senate. Provinces have their own elected legislative Assemblies and Chief Ministers. Majority of the members, of the upper house are elected by the Provincial Assemblies.
LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY:
Pakistan is situated between latitude 24 and 37 degrees north and longitude 62 and 75 degrees east. The country borders Iran on the west, India in the east, Afghanistan in the north-west, China in the north and Arabian sea on the south. The great mountain ranges of the Himalayas, the Karakorams and the Hindukush form Pakistan's northern highlands of the north-west frontier province and the Northern Area; Punjab province is a flat, alluvial plain with five major rivers dominating the upper region eventually joining the Indus river flowing south to the Arabian sea; Sindh is bounded on the east by the thar desert and the Rann of Kutch and on the west by the Kirthar range; the Balochistan plateau is an arid tableland, encircled by dry mountains.
POPULATION (1998 Census):
Total population : 130.58 million, Growth Rate : 2.61% per annum.
Density : 164 person / Sq.kms
Sex Ratio : 108 males to 100 females
AREA:
8,03,940 Sq.km (including FATA and FANA).
CLIMATE:
Pakistan has well defined seasons; Winter (December - February), Spring (March - April), Summer (May - September) and Autumn (October - November).
During summer in central and southern parts of the country, the temperature may go as high as 45oC. However, the northern regions have very pleasant weather during summers. Between July and August, the season brings an average 38-51cm of rain to plains and 152-203cm in lower Himalayan valleys of Murree, Kaghan, Swat and Azad Kashmir.
RELIGION:
Muslim (97%), Hindu (1.5%), Christian (1%) and several other minorities.
LANGUAGES:
National language : URDU
Official language : ENGLISH
Main Regional Languages : Sindhi, Balochi, Punjabi and Pashto.
CURRENCY:
Basic unit of currency is Rupee which divides into 100 paisa.
Currency notes of 1, 2, 5, 10, 50, 100,. 500 and 1000 rupees are in use.
CREDIT CARDS:
American Express is the most widely accepted card. Master card and Visa are also good. Dinner club and other cards have more limited use.
TRAVELERS CHEQUE:
Generally accepted at most banks, four & five star hotels and major shops. To avoid additional exchange rate charges, travelers are advised to take travelers cheque in US Dollars or Pounds Sterling.
ELECTRICITY:
220 V,  50 Hz AC.
TIME ZONE:
Pakistan Standard Time is GMT plus 5 hours. It gets dark at about 05:00pm in winter and at 07:30pm in summer.
DRIVING:
All traffic in Pakistan runs on the left side. International or own national license is valid. Cars must be insured and registered. Minimum age for driving is 18 years. Speed limit is 65 km/h at most roads and 120 km/h on Motorways.
INSURANCE:
Tourists are advised to take insurance against accidents, thefts etc. from the country of origin. There are many insurance companies in Pakistan's major cities who also offer such services.
AIRPORT FACILITIES:
Bank, car rental, tourist information (at Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar and at Saidu Sharif), duty free shop, restaurant, hotels, reception booths, post office and public call office.
AIRPORT DEPARTURE TAX.International :   Economy Class : Rs.400
   Club/Business Class : Rs.600
   First Class : Rs.800
   Foreign Travel Tax (on tickets purchased inside Pakistan) : Rs.1,500
Domestic :   Economy Class : Rs.20 one way
   Club/Business Class : Rs.40 one way
ENTERTAINMENT:Pakistan Television (PTV) entertainment programs of music, plays/dramas and stage shows are telecast from 05 TV Stations; Karachi, Quetta, Lahore, Peshawar and Islamabad. PTV has also started PTV World Channel which can be viewed in the Middle East and South Asia. The private Channel, Shalimar Television Network (STN), besides telecast of similar programs, also re-telecast programs of BBC, CNN & TNT movies.
Pakistan, Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) has 22 radio stations throughout Pakistan which offer music, plays, news and talks in national and local languages. A PBC World Service from Islamabad presents programs in a number of international languages. A private music channel, 'FM -100" has 24 hours music service from 04 major cities of Pakistan. All urban areas have cinema houses which run daily 03 shows of feature films in Urdu and other local languages. Some cinema houses in major cities run English movies also.
NEWSPAPERS:More than 200 daily newspapers and 1700 magazines and periodicals are published throughout the country in English, Urdu and other regional languages.
TOURISM GROWTH:In the year 1998, Pakistan attracted around 3,81,000 tourist from overseas and earned US$111 million as foreign exchange receipts. The number of foreign tourist arrivals in the south Asia region was 5 million. In 1998, the share of Pakistan in tourist arrivals in this region was 7.6%. More than half of foreign tourist arrivals in 1998 were for visiting friends and relatives followed by business travelers 18.3%, holidays and recreational travelers 13.4% and religious tourists to the tune of 2.5%. Most of the tourists from overseas had visited main cities like Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad, mainly due to the nature of foreign tourism which is dominated by visiting friends and relatives.
HOW TO COME TO PAKISTAN:By Air :More than 25 airlines fly to Pakistan from over 40 countries. Most of the flights arrive at Karachi, but PIA, British Airways, Emirates, Saudia and China Xinjiang Airlines fly direct to the twin cities of Rawalpindi/Islamabad. PIA, Indian airlines, Saudia and Thai Airways fly direct to Lahore.  Pakistan International (PIA) has direct flights from the main Mediterranean  and European cities, as well as from New York, Toronto and Nairobi.  It also runs a Far East Network from Tokyo, Beijing, Jakarta, Singapur, Kuala Lampur and Bangkok.  PIA has also flights to Tashkent from Islamabad, Lahore, Peshawar and Karachi while another Pakistani Airline, Aero Asia has a weekly flight between Karachi, Bishkek and Dubai.  
By Land :From China, the Khunjrab Pass is open from 1st May to 31st October for groups and to 15th November for individual tourists.  Customs, immigration post shall remain open daily from 08:30 to 11:00 for outgoing travelers and upto 16:00 for incoming tourists. Travel time from Sost to Taxkurgan is 05hrs (220 kms).  The Chinese border post, Taxkurgan is open 12:00 noon to 14:00 for outgoing tourists and upto 19:00 for incoming travelers.
From India :Wagha is the only Land border open between Pakistan and India.  The Wagha border post open daily for foreigners; summer (18 April to 15 October) 08:30 to 14:30 hrs and winter (16th October to 15th April) 09:00 to 15:00 hrs.  Minibus No. 12 leaves from outside Lahore Railway Station for Wagha every fifteen minutes, cost approximately US $ 0.20 per person.  Taxi shall charge around US $ 8 for this half an hour journey.
By Sea:No passenger boats or ships for the general public sail to or from Pakistan at present. A few pilgrim ships/boats, do ply between Pakistan and the Gulf states. There are some plans of starting a ferry Service between Karachi and Dubai in near future.
TRAVEL WITHIN PAKISTAN:
Air:
PIA serves 38 domestic airports with scheduled connections, including multiple daily flights between major cities of Karachi, Quetta, Multan, Lahore, Islamabad and Peshawar. Two private airlines, Aero Asia and Bhoja Air, also serve Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad and Islamabad. PIA has daily flights linking the Northern tourist towns of Gilgit, Skardu and Saidu Sharif with Islamabad, and Chitral with Peshawar. All flights to the northern region are subject to good weather.
Road:Pakistan has an extensive network of roads and highways, linking every big and small town. There are several highways like Grand Trunk Road between Lahore and Peshawar, Super Highway and National Highway linking Karachi with interior of Sindh and Punjab, Indus Highway linking Peshawar with the Southern Punjab, RCD Highway linking Karachi with Quetta and on to Taftan (Pak-Iran border) and the Karakoram Highway joining Islamabad with Kashgar (China) through Abbottabad, Gilgit Hunza and Khunjrab Pass. A land mark has been achieved with the completion of Lahore-Islamabad motorway (M2) and Faisalabad-Pindi Bhatian Motorway (M3), which have opened some of the remote areas of Pakistan for visitors. Another project of Motorway i.e. Islamabad-Peshawar (M1) will be completed in near future.
You will find all types of public transport in Pakistan. Taxis, auto rickshaws, vans, tongas (horse & carriage) and mini-buses are used for traveling within the city/town/village limits, whereas air-conditioned, non air-conditioned and deluxe type of buses, vans and coaches regularly ply between major cities and tourists destinations. 
Train:Pakistan has over 12,700 kms of railways, including 8,500 kms inherited from the British. Main line runs from Karachi to Peshawar connecting important tourist places like Moenjodaro, Sukkur, Bahawalpur, Multan, Lahore, Rawalpindi / Islamabad, Taxila and Peshawar. Another main line link Quetta with the rest of the country, There are several daily trains running on these lines, however, the faster trains like Shalimar Express and Railcar have more comfortable air-conditioned compartments for travelers.
Pakistan Railways allow a 25% concession in all classes, to foreign tourists and 50% discount for foreign students. This concession is allowed on production of a recommendation certificate issued by any PTDC Tourist Information Centre and original passport, to the Divisional Superintendent of Pakistan Railways.
WHAT TO BUY ?
Pakistan is a treasure house of exquisite handicrafts, made by a people who grew up to weave, to pot, to work metals, wood and stone, to decorate, to build things small and great. Pottery here is a living history, a traditional craft that become an art, with its origin of Pakistan claims its own special jars and jugs, from sturdy terra-cotta to paper-thin ceramics, in vivid colors of mustard yellow, deep green, brick red and sky blue. For those keen on shopping, the prices are still quite reasonable. You will find yourself returning home with hand-woven carpets, marble pieces, copper and brass items, woodwork, embroidered "Kurtas" and "Khussas" and countless objects d'art.
WHAT TO EAT ?
Having inherited the culinary traditions of the Mughals, the Turks, the Central Asian and the Iranians, eating out in Pakistan is a rich and unique experience. Most local restaurants serve authentic Pakistani dishes straight from the oven, with the sites and sounds of a bazaar in the background. Meat, fish and vegetable dishes are seasoned with spices. Pakistani mutton and chicken curries and the oriental rice dish called, Pullao, are also popular with natives and foreigners alike.
WHAT TO WEAR ?
Lightweight, cotton clothes suffice except in north in winter. Men wear suits for business meetings, social events. Casual shalwar suits are worn by all women and the most men in public. Women should dress modestly.
FESTIVALS AND HOLIDAYS OF PAKISTAN:
Pakistan's calendar features a great many Muslim religious festivals. Others are in memory of National Heroes or commemorate political events in the nation's recent history. Muslim festivals are celebrated according to Muslim (Lunar) Calendar and may occur some 10 days earlier each successive Christian year. There are several folk festivals held regularly in every part of the country. Exact dates of such festivals are fixed annually by the District Administration of the respective area, at least 02 months in advance.
DON'TS :Please don't photograph military installations, bridges and airports. Taking photographs of women is prohibited but the girls in the Kalash Valleys can be photographed provided they agree. Don't travel at night on mountain roads and don't swim in the rivers up north or other fast flowing mountains streams.

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Windows 7: What is the PCI Simple Communications Controller?

Posted by Lala Hacker  |  at  07:50:00

What is the PCI Simple Communications Controller?

In Device Manager it shows up as a hardware that has no drivers.
I searched on Google and Windows Update, but no drivers are there.
I also searched on my Dell drivers discs, but there's nothing there for PCI devices.
I was thinking maybe it was the Chipset driver, so I installed that, but apparently that wasn't the fix.

Anyone know where to find a driver or fix for this thing? 
 Tip: Download Windows Repair Tool

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What is Programming?

Posted by Lala Hacker  |  at  07:49:00

What is Programming?



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Aren't Programmers Just Nerds?:

Programming is a creative process done by programmers to instruct a computer on how to do a task. Hollywood has helped instill an image of programmers as uber techies who can sit down at a computer and break any password in seconds or make highly tuned warp engines improve performance by 500% with just one tweak. Sadly the reality is far less interesting!

So Programming Is Boring? No!:

Computers can be programmed to do interesting things. In the UK, a system has been running for several years that reads car number plates. The car is seen by a camera and the image captured then instantly processed so that the number plate details are extracted, run through a national car registrationdatabase of number plates and any stolen vehicle etc alerts for that vehicle flagged up within four seconds.
With the right attachments, a computer could be programmed to perform dentistry. Testing that would be interesting and might be a bit scary!

Two Different Types Of Software:

Older computers, generally those with black and white displays and no mouse tend to runconsole applications. There are still plenty of these about, they are very popular for rapid data entry.
The other type of applications require a mouse and are called GUI programs or event driven programming. These are seen on Windows PCs, Linux PCs and Apple Macs. Programming these applications is a bit harder than for console but newer programming languages like these have simplified it.

What Do Programs Do?:

Fundamentally programs manipulate numbers and text. These are the building blocks of all programs. Programming languages let you use them in different ways, eg adding numbers, etc, or storing data on disk for later retrieval.
These numbers and text are called variables and can be handled singly or in structured collections. InC++, a variable can be used to count numbers, or astruct) variable hold payroll details for an employee such as
  • Name
  • Salary
  • Company Id Number
  • Total Tax Paid
  • SSN
A database can hold millions of these records and fetch them very rapidly.

Programs Must Be Written For An Operating System:

Programs don't exist by themselves but need operating system, unless they are the operating system!
Before Java, programs needed rewriting for each operating system. A program that ran on a Linux box could not run on a Windows box or a Mac. With Java it is now far easier to write a program once then run it everywhere as it is compiled to a common code called bytecodewhich is then interpreted. Each operating system has a Java interpreter, called a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) written for it and knows how to interpret bytecode. C# has something similar.

Programs Use Operating Systems Code:

Unless you're selling software and want to run it on every different operating system, you are more likely to need to modify it for new versions of the same operating system. Programs use features provided by the operating system and if those change then the program must change or it will break.
Many applications written for Windows 2000 or XP use the Local Machine part of the registry. Under Windows Vista this will cause problems and Microsoft is advising people to rewrite code affected by this. Microsoft have done this to make Vista more secure.

Computers Can Talk To Other Computers:

When connected in a network, they can even run programs on each other or transfer data viaports. Programs you write can also do this. This makes programming a little harder as you have to cope with situations like
  • When a network cable is pulled out.
  • Another networked PC is switched off.
Some advanced programming languages let you write programs that run their parts on different computers. This only works if the problem can use parallelism. Some problems cannot be divided this way:
  • Nine women cannot produce one child between them in just one month!

Programming Peripherals attached to your Computer:

If you have a peripheral, say a computer controlled video camera, it will come with a cable that hooks it up to the PC and some interfacing software to control it. It may also come with
that lets you write software to control it. You could then program it to switch on and record during the hours when you are out of the house. If your PC can read sound levels from the microphone then you might write code that starts the camera recording when the sound level is above a limit that you specified. Many peripherals can be programmed like this.

Games Are Just Programs:

Games on PCs use special libraries :
So they can write to the display hardware very rapidly. Games screens update at over 60 times per seconds so 3D games software has to move everything in 3D space, detect collisions etc then render the 3D view onto a flat surface (the screen!) 60 times each second. That's a very short period of time but video card hardware now does an increasing amount of the rendering work. The GPU chips are optimized for fast rendering and can do these operations up to 10x faster than a CPU can, even with the fastest software.

Conclusion:

Many programmers write software as a creative outlet. The web is full of websites with source code developed by amateur programmers who did it for the heck of it and are happy to share their code. Linux started this way when Linus Torvalds shared code that he had written.
The intellectual effort in writing a medium sized program is probably comparable to writing a book, except you never need to debug a book! There is a joy to finding out new ways to make something happen, or solving a particularly thorny problem. If your programming skills are good enough then you could get a full-time job as a programmer.

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What is Software?

Posted by Lala Hacker  |  at  07:48:00

What is Software?

Sometimes abbreviated as S/Wsoftware is a collection of instructionsthat enable a user to interact with the computer or have the computer perform specific tasks for them. Without software, the computer would be useless. For example, without your Internet browser software you would be unable to browse the Internet or read this page and without a software operating system the browser would not be able to run on your computer. In the picture to the right, is an example of what a Microsoft Excel software box looks like and is another example of a software program.

How do you get software?

Software can be purchased at a local retail computer store and online and is usually included in a box similar to the one shown to the right, this box usually contains all the disks (floppy disketteCDDVD, or Blu-ray) required to install the program onto the computer, manuals, warranty, and other important documentation.
Software can also be downloaded to the computer over the Internet. Once downloaded the setup file can be run to start the installation of the program on your computer.
Free software
In addition to purchasing software there are also millions of free software programs available that are broken into several different types of categories. First, shareware or trial software is software that gives you a few days to try the software before you buy the program. After the trial time expires you'll be asked to enter a code or to register the product before you can continue to use the program. Freeware is another type of free software, this software is free to use to anyone for as long as they wish with no obligations to pay. Finally, open source software is like freeware but not only is the program given away but the code used to make the program is also given away, which allows anyone to modify the program or just view how it was created.

Examples of types of software

Below is a short list of the different types of software that a computer may have installed as well as an examples of each program. Clicking on any of the below links will open a page with additional information about that type of software or program.

How is software created?

computer programmer or several computer programmers write the instructions using a programming language that tell the software how to work. Once a program has been completed it is compiled into a language that the computer can understand.

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Thursday, 20 March 2014

How to Optimize Images in Blog Post

Posted by my lala  |  at  01:14:00

How To Optimize Images In Blog



Optimize Images in Blog Post 
Adding optimized images into blog posts is not only one of goodSEO tips but it also adds into the good-look of post. Therefore, using images in post should be maintained. Do not post without an image. Images can convey a good message. It is a popular say that a single image can represent meanings of hundred of words. Therefore, using images in post are extremely important. Google Image Search is also a good example to realize the importance of images in posts. But without optimizations, these images cannot bring traffic to your site. So treat images as a factor of SEO.

  • Optimization of Images

Optimization of Images in blog begins when you upload an image into your site. First of all, image must be named properly according to the related keywords. If you do not use keyword in image name, you may drop a sensible traffic.
When an image is uploaded, it must be allocated with a name. Since Google reads the name of an image as Google cannot read an image, therefore, image must be optimized using <ALT> tag. Otherwise, your images will not help you bringing traffic.

  • Why need <ALT> Tag?

You might have seen when internet speed is slow then images are rarely displayed. Instead of images, their names are displayed and these names are given to them using <ALT> tag. ALT means alternative and it performs its function as an alternate.
<ALT> tag is used in the following way:


<img src= “Image URL” alt= “Keywords-image-name” Title= “Words to be displayed on hover”>

For using <ALT> tag, you need to switch to HTML mode of post editor.


Blogger has really made it simple now. It was difficult to tag images before. Images were given names in <HTML> mode which was difficult to handle because of other content. Now, it is quite easy.
Simply insert an image in any post, click on the image, now click on image properties. The following image properties box appears.
Now, You can use <ALT> easily as shown:
Your Image
You can see there are two options. One is for <ALT> tag while other is for <TITLE> tag. Title tag displays title for the image whenever pointer is hovered on the image. It is also a good tag. Use the same words in title as you use in <ALT> tag.

  • Caption for image Optimization

According to SEO, caption is not important for bringing a site higher in search results. However, it could add into the look of a post. Therefore, it should be used when it is suitable.

  • Important points about Image Optimization

  • Do not upload large sized images.
  • Always use .PNG format for better performance.
  • Say ‘No’ to .GIF format.
  • Always give name to image before uploading.
  • Always use <ALT> and <TITLE> tags.
  • Display short but catchy images.
  • Do not use copyright images.
  • Image color should be suitable with template.
  • Try to use only one image. (Screenshots does not matter if used more than one for teaching purpose)
  • Use image on the top of the post body. (Can be used elsewhere if necessary)
  • Do not link them to unrelated contents.
  • Better if caption is used.
  • Do not use single image in every post. Use different!
  • Do not put unnecessary labels of your site on images.
  • Try to shield your unique images under copyright policy.

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